# Blog

## What is a wind profiler used for?

The log wind profile is a semi-empirical relationship commonly used to describe the vertical distribution of horizontal mean wind speeds within the lowest portion of the planetary boundary layer. ... In the free atmosphere, geostrophic wind relationships should be used.

## What is the log wind profile equation?

Logarithmic wind profile

where z is height from surface, z0 is the roughness length, h is a displacement height and A = u* / Îș - where u* is the friction velocity and &kappa is the Von Karman constant.

## Which electromagnetic spectrum is a wind profiler?

Wind profilers are Doppler radars that most often operate in the VHF (30-300 MHz) or UHF (300-1000 MHz) frequency bands.

## What is the formula for wind speed?

Convert a wind speed measured in kilometers per hour to mph: Divide the kilometers per hour wind speed by 1.61 to get the wind speed in mph. If your wind speed is 161 kph, for example: 161 kph/1.61 = 100 mph.

## Can Doppler radar measure wind speed?

Since Doppler radar can only detect the wind speed component directly toward or away from the radar (i.e. radial velocity), it samples wind speeds less than the full two dimensional wind speed. The EAV tool adds the component perpendicular to the radar beam using an input wind direction.

## What do dropsondes measure?

A dropsonde is a weather device that is designed to be dropped out of an aircraft at specified altitudes and due to the force of gravity, drop to the Earth. ... The dropsonde also contains pressure, temperature and humidity sensors that capture vertical profiles of atmospheric thermodynamic data.

The height above ground where surface friction has a negligible effect on wind speed is called the "gradient height" and the wind speed above this height is assumed to be a constant called the "gradient wind speed". ... After sundown the wind gradient near the surface increases, with the increasing stability.

## How is wind resource assessment done?

Measurements. To estimate the energy production of a wind farm, developers must first measure the wind on site. Meteorological towers equipped with anemometers, wind vanes, and sometimes temperature, pressure, and relative humidity sensors are installed.

## Is an anemometer?

An anemometer is an instrument that measures wind speed and wind pressure. Anemometers are important tools for meteorologists, who study weather patterns. They are also important to the work of physicists, who study the way air moves.Jul 28, 2011

## What is wind profile in air pollution?

The basic properties of the boundary layer that are of importance for air pollution studies are the vertical wind profile (wind speed and direction) which determines transport, the level of turbulence which is responsible for the spread and dilution of plumes, and the height of the boundary layer.

### How is Doppler radar used in meteorology?

The Doppler radar used in weather forecasting measures the direction and speed, or velocity, of objects such as drops of precipitation. This is called the Doppler Effect and is used to determine whether movement in the atmosphere is horizontally toward or away from the radar, which aides in weather forecasting.

### How can a radar wind profiler measure temperature?

The profiler can also measure temperature using a Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS), in which sound waves are emitted and tracked by the radar. The speed of the sound waves is related to air temperature.

### What time of day is the wind strongest?

These gusty surface winds usually begin in the late morning hours, peak in the afternoon, and end by early evening. Winds in the low-levels become much more uniform at night and in predawn hours.Feb 1, 2014

### What is the fastest wind speed ever recorded?

For nearly sixty-two years, Mount Washington, New Hampshire held the world record for the fastest wind gust ever recorded on the surface of the Earth: 231 miles per hour, recorded April 12, 1934 by Mount Washington Observatory staff.

### How is a wind profile constructed?

• A wind profile is constructed by geometrically transforming the radial velocities into the meteorological coordinate system. A single wind profile is produced over an observing period of 30 to 90 s. All of the wind profiles measured within a specified averaging period (15 min to 60 min) are averaged together using a consensus routine.

### What is the wind profile power law relationship?

• The wind profile power law relationship is often used as a substitute for the log wind profile when surface roughness or stability information is not available. The wind profile power law relationship is: where u is the wind speed (in meters per second) at height z (in meters), and u r is the known wind speed at a reference height z r.

### How reliable is the log wind profile?

• The log wind profile is generally considered to be a more reliable estimator of mean wind speed than the wind profile power law in the lowest 10â20 m of the planetary boundary layer. Between 20 m and 100 m both methods can produce reasonable predictions of mean wind speed in neutral atmospheric conditions.

### What is the frequency range of a wind profiler?

• Wind Profilers Wind profilers are Doppler radars that most often operate in the VHF (30-300 MHz) or UHF (300-1000 MHz) frequency bands. There are three primary types of radar wind profilers in operation in the U.S. today. The NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) profiler operates at a frequency of 404 MHz (Table 1, Fig. 1a).